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For Type 1 elements the substrate consists of a metal plate with a glass ceramic or enamelled layer applied to it as the insulation, high temperature glass, or glass ceramic, solid ceramic such as alumina, silicon nitride, cement, tiles or bricks, and high temperature plastics.

Type 1 elements can be produced for water heating (kettles, coffee pots, etc), air heating (fan heaters, hand dryers, hair dryers, etc), and as convector heaters where one face of the element has a decorative design applied to it. One large potential for Type 1 elements is as oven heating devices where the element is sprayed onto one side of an enamelled metal plate and used as part of the oven heating area. Similarly for glass ceramic hobs.

Type 1 elements can be formulated to perform well over a range of temperatures from 50°C up to 400°C and beyond. Their operating temperature is generally governed by the stability of the substrate and the ability of the substrate material to withstand thermal expansion and contraction without cracking. They have a great advantage over conventional wire, strip or tubular elements in that they can be produced with large surface areas such that the heat dissipation is maximised and the operating temperature per unit area is minimised, which reduces the thermal stresses on the substrate materials.

Further, such elements will continue to work even when physically damaged – e.g. if part of the conductive track is removed. Because of the low current densities per unit area for this type of element, they are unlikely to prove fatal if accidentally touched whilst carrying current. Accordingly, such flame sprayed elements are both more robust and safer than conventional wire, strip or tubular designs.

Type 1 elements typically operate at power densities of 60 watts/cm2 and higher.


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